This blog entry is about one of the features of DATAGEN that makes it
different from other synthetic graph generators that can be found in the
literature: the community structure of the graph.
When generating synthetic graphs, one must not only pay attention to
quantitative measures such as the number of nodes and edges, but also to
other more qualitative characteristics such as the degree distribution,
clustering coefficient. Real graphs, and specially social networks, have
typically highly skewed degree distributions with a long tail, a
moderatelly large clustering coefficient and an appreciable community
structure.
The first two characteristics are deliberately modeled in DATAGEN.
DATAGEN generates persons with a degree distribution that matches that
observed in Facebook, and thanks to the attribute correlated edge
generation process, we obtain graphs with a moderately large clustering
coefficient. But what about the community structure of graphs generated
with DATAGEN? The answer can be found in the paper titled “How
community-like is the structure of synthetically generated graphs”,
which was published in GRADES 2014 [1]. Here we summarize the paper and
its contributions and findings.
Existing synthetic graph generators such as Rmat [1] and Mag [2], are
graphs generators designed to produce graphs with long tailed
distributions and large clustering coefficient, but completely ignore
the fact that real graphs are structured into communities. For this
reason, Lancichinetti et al. proposed LFR [3], a graph generator that did
not only produced graphs with realistic high level characteristics, but
enforced an appreciable community structure. This generator, has become
the de facto standard for benchmarking community detection algorithms,
as it does not only outputs a graph but also the communities present in
that graph, hence it can be used to test the quality of a community
detection algorithm.
However, no one studied if the community structure produced by LFR, was
in fact realistic compared to real graphs. Even though the community
structure in in LFR exhibit interesting properties, such as the expected
larger internal density than external, or a longtailed distribution of
community sizes, they lack the noise and inhomogeneities present in a
real graph. And more importantly, how does the community structure of
DATAGEN compares to that exhibited in LFR and reap graphs? Is it more or
less realistic? +
The authors of [1] set up an experiment where they analized the
characteristics of the communities output by LFR, and the groups
(groups of people interested in a given topic) output by DATAGEN, and
compared them to a set of real graphs with metadata. These real graphs,
which can be downloaded from the Snap project website, are graphs that
have recently become very popular in the field of community detection,
as they contain ground truth communities extracted from their metadata.
The ground truth graphs used in this experiment are shown in the
following table. For more details about how this ground truth is
generated, please refer to [4].
Nodes | Edges | |
---|---|---|
Amazon | 334863 | 925872 |
Dblp | 317080 | 1049866 |
Youtube | 1134890 | 2987624 |
Livejournal | 3997962 | 34681189 |
The authors of [1] selected a set of statistical indicators to
characterize the communities:
- The clustering coefficient
- The triangle participation ration (TPR), which is the ratio of nodes
that close at least one triangle in the community. - The bridge ratio, which is the ratio of edges whose removal
disconnects the community. - The diameter
- The conductance
- The size
The authors start by analyzing each community of the ground truth
graphs using the above statistical indicators and ploting the
distributions of each of them. The following are the plots of the
Livejournal graph. We summarize the findings of the authors regarding
real graphs: +
Several indicators (Clustering Coefficient, TPR and Bridge ratio)
exihibit a multimodal distribution, with two peaks aht their extremes.
- Many of the communities (44%) have a small clustering coefficient
between 0 and 0.01. Out of them, 56% have just three vertices. On the
other hand, 11% of the communities have a clustering coefficient between
0.99 and 1.0. In between, communities exhibit different values of
clustering coefficients. This trend is also observed for TPR and
Bridgeratio. This suggests that communities cannot be modeled using a
single model. - 84% of the communities have a diameter smaller than five, suggesting
that ground truth communities are small and compact - Ground truth communities are not very isolated, they have a lot of
connections pointing outside of the community. - Most of the communities are small (10 or less nodes).
- In general, ground truth communities are, small with a low diameter,
not isolated and with different ranges of internal connectivity.
Clustering Coefficient | TPR |
Bridge Ratio | Diameter |
Conductance | Size |
The authors performed the same experiment but for DATAGEN and LFR
graphs. They generated a graph of 150k nodes, using their default
parameters. In the case of LFR, they tested five different values of the
mixing factor, which specifies the ratio of edges of the community
pointing outside of the community, They ranged this value from 0 to 0.5.
The following are the distributions for DATAGEN.
Clustering Coefficient | TPR |
Bridge Ratio | TPRDiameter |
Conductance | Size |
The main conclusions that can be extracted from DATAGEN can be
summarized asfollows:
- DATAGEN is able to reproduce the multimodal distribution observed for
clustering coefficient, TPR and bridge ratio. - The central part of the clustering coefficient is biased towards the
left, in a similar way as observed for the youtube and livejournal
graphs. - Communities of DATAGEN graphs are not, as in real graphs, isolated,
but in this case their level of isolation if significantly larger. - The diameter is small like in the real graphs.
- It is significant that communities in DATAGEN graphs are closer to
those observed in Youtube and Livejournal, as these are social networks
like the graphs produced by DATAGEN. We see that DATAGEN is able to
reproduce many of their characteristics.
Finally, the authors repeat the same experiment for LFR graphs. The
following are the plots for the LFR graph with mixing ratio 0.3. From
them, the authors extract the following conclusions:
- LFR graphs donot show the multimodal distribution observed in real
graphs - Only the diameter shows a similar shape as in the ground truth.
Clustering Coefficient | TPR |
Bridge Ratio | TPRDiameter |
Conductance | Size |
To better quanify how similar are the distribuions between the different
graphs, the authors also show the correlograms for each of the
statisticsl indicators. These correlograms, contain the Spearman’s
correlation coefficient between each pair of graphs for a given
statistical indicator. The more blue the color, the better the
correlation is. We see that DATAGEN distributions correlate very well
with those observed in real graphs, specially as we commented above,
with Youtube and Livejournal. On the other hand, LFR only succeds
significantly in the case of the Diameter.
Clustering Coefficient | TPR |
Bridge Ratio | TPRDiameter |
Conductance | Size |
We see that DATAGEN is able to reproduce a realistics community
structure, compared to existing graph generators. This feature, could be
potentially exploited to define new benchmakrs to measure the quality of
novel community detection algorithms. Stay tuned for future blog posts
about his topic!
References
[1] Arnau Prat-Pérez,
David Domínguez-Sal: How community-like is the structure of synthetically
generated graphs? GRADES 2014
[2] Deepayan Chakrabarti, Yiping Zhan, and ChristosFaloutsos. R-mat: A
recursive model for graph mining. SIAM 2014
[3] Myunghwan Kim and Jure Leskovec. Multiplicative attribute graph
model of real-world networks. Internet Mathematics
[4] Andrea Lancichinetti, Santo Fortunato, and Filippo Radicchi.
Benchmark graphs for testing community detection algorithms. Physical
Review E 2008.